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20                        THE FATE OF MAN

suggestion and often enter a state of collective
demoniac possession. They may be possessed
only by ideas which permit of a simple and
elemental symbolism, a mode quite characteristic
of our time. The search for leaders who can lead
the masses, offer alleviation for woes, solve all
problems, means simply that all the classic
authorities have fallen, monarchy and democracy
together, and that they must be replaced by new
authorities, born of the collective " possession "
of the mass. The leader must provide " bread
and the theatre." He usually gives more of the
latter than the former. Hitler, up to the present
moment, has offered almost exclusively the
theatre: his politics are like the setting of a
Wagnerian opera. He too, by the way, is nour-
ished upon hatred, and it is an astonishing fact
that, for a while at least, hatred may be a substitute
for bread. For a while men can live on hatred,
but not for long. There is more theatre than
bread in communist Russia, also, and there also
they are trying to live on hatred, hence the
constant need of an enemy and the seatch for
"harmers."1

1 " Harmer '* or " wrecker " is the -word made popular in
Soviet Hussia to indicate one who does something to kapedfc
the ^ogress of the Soviet State, The Vickers engineer were
arraigned as "Harmers," but the word applies equally to a
p&s$nt who does a poor job of ploughing or a factory workman
Who is careless in the use of tools^D," A. L.